Automobiles are vehicles that use an internal combustion engine to turn mechanical energy into motion. Most of these vehicles run on gasoline, but there are also electric cars and some that use alternative fuels such as ethanol. The car industry has produced many technological innovations that have made it possible for automobiles to go faster and farther than ever before.

The car is now the most common means of transportation in the United States, and it has shaped our culture and economy. It has allowed people to commute to work, travel for recreation, and buy goods and services without leaving their homes. It has also contributed to leisure activities and created new businesses such as hotels, restaurants, and amusement parks. It has also brought new problems, including air pollution, noise, and the destruction of undeveloped land to build highways.

Exactly who invented the first automobile is a subject of great controversy. Leonardo da Vinci may have sketched designs for motorized carriages as early as the 15th century, and there were steam, electric, and gasoline-powered prototypes in operation by the end of the 19th century. The most significant advance was the development of the mass production process that enabled manufacturers to make and sell automobiles at affordable prices.

There were several factors that contributed to the United States’ early success in automobile manufacturing. Its vast geographic area and its relatively high per capita income encouraged greater demand for automobiles than existed in Europe, and the absence of tariff barriers between states allowed for free sales within a large territory. Cheap raw materials and a labor shortage helped drive the mechanization of manufacturing processes.

By the 1920s, however, market saturation and technological stagnation began to occur. While there were still significant innovations such as the self-starter and closed all-steel body, these were incremental rather than revolutionary.

Today, there are 10 types of automobiles available in a variety of sizes and at widely varying price points. Those 10 categories include sedans, hatchbacks, wagons, and sports utility vehicles (SUVs). Some models are designed to appeal to a particular audience, such as the 2024 Mazda 3 compact that has transformed from penalty box to truly desirable vehicle. The Kia K5 that replaced the Optima midsize sedan in 2021 is another example, with its chiseled styling and impressive performance. As the automotive industry continues to evolve, it will be interesting to see what shape the future of this technology takes.